This study assesses how African countries mobilize, allocate and manage external resource inflows, as well as how they manage relationships with funders—traditional and non-traditional, emerging state and non-state actors. Six countries were selected for in-depth review: Burkina Faso, Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. These countries are drawn from different African regions and have at least 15 years experience with development aid. The study answers a series of questions presented to a variety of stakeholders, including government officials, traditional and emerging development partners, private sector actors and civil society organizations. The study also reviewed six development projects to shed light on why the quality of aid management varies from country to country. The study draws conclusions and makes recommendations to stakeholders.