Despite its success, will AGOA be renewed after 2025? Most likely not. AGOA is seen by the United States as a stepping stone to a broader trade pact with Sub-Saharan African countries. At the recent World Economic Forum in Kigali, U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman stressed that African economies have changed since the United States first started offering duty-free access to certain countries under the AGOA, and trade relations need to evolve accordingly, implicitly acknowledging that the United States wants trade pacts with Africa to be bilateral. The global trade environment is changing, most notably with the EU’s preferential trade agreements with African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries. These new agreements, called economic partnership agreements, place U.S. firms at a disadvantage by providing European firms access into African markets, while AGOA provides access to the United States without any such reciprocity for U.S. firms. With the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement all-but-ratified, Sub-Saharan African countries must ensure that they are not left out of the future of global trade.